MongoDB is a cross-platform document-oriented database program. Classified as a NoSQL database program, MongoDB uses JSON-like documents with optional schemas.
Fields in a MongoDB document can be indexed with primary and secondary indices.
MongoDB provides high availability with replica sets. A replica set consists of two or more copies of the data. Each replica set member may act in the role of the primary or secondary replica at any time. All writes and reads are done on the primary replica by default. Secondary replicas maintain a copy of the data of the primary using built-in replication.
MongoDB scales horizontally using sharding. The user chooses a shard key, which determines how the data in a collection will be distributed. The data is split into ranges (based on the shard key) and distributed across multiple shards. Additionally, it can run over multiple servers, balancing the load or duplicating data to keep the system up and running in case of hardware failure.
MongoDB can be used as a file system, called GridFS, with load balancing and data replication features over multiple machines for storing files.
MongoDB provides three ways to perform aggregation: the aggregation pipeline, the map-reduce function, and single-purpose aggregation methods.
MongoDB supports fixed-size collections called capped collections. This type of collection maintains insertion order and, once the specified size has been reached, behaves like a circular queue.
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